This chapter explores the phenomenon of variation in business processes. It explains what process variance is and how to identify it. Much of the discussion is related to the need for business process variation and how much is enough. Some examples are provided on how to model and manage process variance and how to relate it to the business model and strategy. Finally, the benefits, and typical pitfalls when modeling and managing process variance, are explained to give insight into how variance should be handled and what to avoid.